Category Archives: Salary

orthodontist salary

The Orthodontist Salary: A Candy Treat From A Tooth Fairy

Orthodontist Salary

Orthodontists are a specialized type of dentist. Dentists in general focus on the health of individual teeth and gums, preventing and treating cavities and ensuring dental hygiene. Orthodontists, on the other hand, take a closer look at the structure of the teeth and jaws. The orthodontist profession has dramatically grown over the last fifty or so years, with braces and other orthodontic work now becoming a common part of childhood (though adults continue to have braces later in life).

Orthodontists typically own their own office, or they share with a few other orthodontists. Orthodontic assistants assist them in their offices, much as dental hygienists assist dentists. Depending on the area and competition, they typically serve a great number of people in their area.

Orthodontists are one of the highest-paid positions, typically making more than their dentist counterpart. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average orthodontist salary as of May 2017 is $229,380, over $110 an hour.

This is a male-dominated field, with men making up approximately 62 percent of orthodontists across the nation. As with most medical professions, however, the number of women in this field has been consistently on the rise.

The Work of an Orthodontist

Orthodontists mainly focus on teeth and jaw alignment. The most common way that they do their work is through braces. There’s a lot more to braces, though, than simply gluing down some metal onto teeth. Orthodontists must first identify whether or not braces are necessary for the patient, or if other means may better suffice. Once the need for braces has been determined, they and their assistants are responsible for taking x-ray images, making teeth molds, and taking measurements to accurately apply the braces.

Alternatives to braces that orthodontists work with include head gear to correct jaw alignment, screws to increase movement, and other tools to shape tooth and jaw construction. Because each patient and their dental needs are unique, they must frequently come up with modified, new, and outside-the-box equipment and solutions to best help them. Orthodontists, therefore, are a creative bunch.

Aside from doing orthodontal work, orthodontists are also responsible for making an overall plan and checking in with progress of their patients throughout it. For children with braces, orthodontic appointments may be as often as every six weeks, or even more frequently near the beginning and end of the process.

Orthodontists are not only responsible for creating individual plans for their patients. They also need to be adaptable with each plan depending on how the patients are progressing. They coordinate differing rubber band alignments with braces and how long each cycle should last, determine if additional orthodontic action is necessary, and make recommendations for how best to treat and take care of your teeth.

Post-braces, they are also responsible for determining what retainers are necessary and sculpt them to fit each individual.

Aside from the technical work, orthodontists are also responsible for forming relationships with their patients. Dental work can be nerve-wracking, so it’s important that orthodontists develop trust with their patients and put their minds at ease.

Job Satisfaction

Job Satisfaction

Overall, orthodontists are highly satisfied with their careers. Being an orthodontist is rated as one of the best healthcare professions overall. Orthodontists like that they do meaningful work, creating beautiful smiles for both children and adults. They get to make meaningful relationships with their patients, keeping in periodic contact with them and watching them grow as their orthodontic work progresses.

Orthodontists report below-average stress-levels, and their schedule is typically more flexible than most. There’s an average amount of room for promotion once they’re established doctors. The high-paying orthodontist salary certainly doesn’t hurt when it comes to job satisfaction, too.

How to Become an Orthodontist

It takes a lot of work and schooling to become an orthodontist. After high school, you first must obtain a bachelor’s degree, preferably in a science or related field. Next comes four years of dental school. After that, prospective orthodontists must complete an additional two to three years in an orthodontic residency position, during which time you’ll receive extensive education and training.

After the residency has been completed, you must then pass the American Board of Orthodontics written exam before finally becoming certified as an official orthodontist. Once you’ve become certified, you should then seek to join an orthodontic office, or, if your funds allow it, establish your own.

Additionally, it’s also important for orthodontists to be personable so they can create trusting relationships with their patients. Furthermore, it is imperative that they have the steady hands required for the technical work of orthodontistry.

It takes a lot of hard work to become an orthodontist, and it’s certainly not a job that just anyone can do. Take long and thoughtful consideration before determining to pursue this career path.

Job Market

While the Bureau of Labor Statistics does not report the job growth for orthodontists specifically, they do provide data for dentistry as a whole. Between the years of 2016 and 2026, they estimate that the job outlook for dentist professions will increase by 19%. This is significantly greater than the national average of a 7% increase.

Orthodontist Salary Range

The mean orthodontist salary is exceedingly high, the Bureau of Labor Statistics recoding it at $229,380. This is significantly higher than the average dentist salary, which is recorded at $158,120. If you’re thinking of going into a dental profession, consider taking the orthodontic route.

Most orthodontist salaries fall somewhere within the wide range of $78,243 to $296,747, the salary level largely determined by experience level, clientele, and area.

Salary Factors

The number one factor that affects salary level is of course experience, but there are also several other factors that play a key role. One of these is location—not only does the area of an orthodontist office affect the general salary and economy levels, it also affects the number of patients the orthodontist services.

Man reading with coffee on table

Another key factor is the office out of which orthodontists work out of. For instance, orthodontists working out of a dentist’s or health practitioner’s office will likely make less on average than one working from a physician’s office or one who owns their own specific orthodontic office.

Highest Orthodontist Employment Levels by State

As touched on above, location is a large factor when it comes to salary level of orthodontists, as well as employment opportunities. Location determines not only the economy that an orthodontist will be working in, but also the size and composition of the clientele that they will be servicing.

When looking at the states with the highest employment rates, therefore, weigh this information carefully. While this data shows the areas where orthodontists are successfully working, you also want to avoid jumping into an over-saturated market.

The information provided below is a list of the top five states with the most orthodontists along with their corresponding amounts, as provided by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

1. California: 500

2. Texas: 500

3. Massachusetts: 450

4. Florida: 420

5. Maryland: 270

Highest Orthodontist Salaries by State

And now for the more economy-centric information. Aside from knowing where orthodontists are getting work, everyone of course wants to know what they’re making. Interestingly, none of the top paying states match the list above.

Listed below are the five highest paying states for orthodontists. For the top three, the Bureau of Labor Statistics does not provide direct information, only that the salaries exceed those in the fourth and fifth places on the list.

1. Washington

2. Virginia

3. Nebraska

4. Alabama: $289,740

5. Arizona: $284,310

Highest Orthodontist Salaries by Metropolitan Area

Naturally, in terms of highest paid orthodontists by metropolitan area there is some overlap with the list of states, but not entirely. The Bureau of Labor Statistics does not report the direct mean orthodontist salaries of its top five metropolitan areas, but each average is higher than the salary of the sixth-place area: Lake County-Kenosha County, IL-WI Metropolitan Division, where the mean salary is $283,100.

Here are the top five metropolitan areas:

1. Yakima, WA

2. Stockton-Lodi, CA

3. Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ

4. Columbus, OH

5. Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ

Final Thoughts on Orthodontists

Going into orthodontics is a very big decision that you shouldn’t take lightly. There are a lot of great benefits to becoming an orthodontist: the meaningful work, the flexibility, the healthy work-life balance and lack of extreme stress, and, of course, that high-paying orthodontist salary.

To reap all these benefits, however, you must first sow plenty of hard work. The additional four years of schooling after undergrad are enough to turn many off from the career, let alone the additional years of required residency and training. To be successful in an orthodontist role, you have to be smart and dedicated, and have steady hands capable of doing intricate and precise work.

If you possess these traits, then becoming an orthodontist very well may be the best career choice for you. With the dentistry industry as a whole going through a major uptrend in the job market, now is a better time than most to start out that career.

executive assistant smiling - describing the executive assistant salary

Executive Assistant Salary: A Guide On Compensation and Your Demanding Role

Executive Assistant Salary

The term “assistant” opens up a wide umbrella of possibilities. Because of the versatile nature and meanings of the role, assistants can be found in almost any industry. They provide support to all different levels of a business and support one or multiple staff members. Assistants are often the unsung heroes in any business—without assistants, their bosses wouldn’t be able to do everything they need done, and their jobs would be much more stressful for it.

When it comes to executive assistants, then, the stakes are raised even higher. Executive assistants are just as they sound: assistants to company executives. Due to the nature of executive work being crucial for business operations, the role of the executive assistant becomes even more critical. Executive assistants often provide support not only by maintaining office tasks, but by creating reports, channeling correspondence, and a variety of other important tasks that their bosses require them for,

Because of the important nature of their work, executive assistants typically make more than the average assistant. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average executive assistant salary is $59,400, as of May 2017.

The majority of the executive assistant field, just like the assistant field in general, is almost entirely female-dominated. According to data collected by, women make up approximately 95% of the executive assistant workforce.

Executive Assistant Duties

discussion between executive assistant and the ceo

The duties of an executive assistant can vary widely depending on what business sector they’re in, but for our purposes. we’ll try to stick to some of the major ones here.

Office Duties

In terms of office duties, executive assistants are similar to office assistants in general. Executive assistants are frequently the front desk face, in charge of meeting and greeting those that walk through the door. They help clients and customers before passing them along to one of the executives they assist, doing as much work as possible beforehand to take it off the executive’s plate.

They also tend to perform more mundane office tasks such as filing and record keeping. An executive assistant will likely oversee the office space, and is therefore in charge of ensuring everything is kept tidy and operations are running smoothly. They also make sure that the office is supplied with everything it needs.


Whether an executive assistant assists just one or several people, they tend to be in charge of managing schedules. Formulating a schedule can include setting meetings with clients, other team members, or other companies, while also making sure that none of these conflict and leave the executives time for their other work. They also frequently schedule business trips, taking care of meetings, flight times, and hotels.

Providing scheduling assistance takes a load off the work of the executives they support, so though this task may seem small it shouldn’t be undervalued.

Company Representation

Along the lines of providing the face of the front office, executive assistants are often responsible for providing positive company representation both directly and indirectly. By providing friendly and helpful customer assistance, executive assistants thus promote a positive public image. They provide the frontlines of communication both in-office and on the phone, so it is important that they make a good first impression for the company.

Executive assistants are also often responsible for interacting with other business professionals, and therefore must provide quality and professional company representation in this aspect as well.


Lady talking on phone

As touched on above, executive assistants provide early company representation because they’re the first line of communication for many trying to get in contact with the company. Channeling communication is another seemingly simple but very important function of an executive assistant, allowing the executives they’re assisting to only have to deal with matters that specifically require their attention and freeing up a lot of work time.

Executive assistants will answer the company phone, respond to emails, and even draft general copy and correspondence in the forms of reminder emails and newsletters. It is therefore important that executive assistants are not only personable, but also have good written communication skills.

Report Preparation

Now we’ll dive a little deeper into tasks that are a bit more geared toward executive assistants specifically. Dealing with company data and forming reports are part of what set executive assistants apart from lower-level assistants. They’ll typically spend time dealing with company databases and analytics, compiling them into reports for the executives they’re supporting so that they have the information they need.

Executive assistants may also create reports on a variety of topics that aren’t directly related to the company’s business data. These may concern competitors, other businesses they intend to meet with, or whatever else the executive might request.

In addition to taking information and synthesizing it into a report for short-term use, executive assistants are also in charge of record keeping to make sure all that information is safely stored and on hand at a moment’s notice.

Holding Confidential Information

Executive assistants work very closely with the executives they support. As a consequence, they sometimes become privy to very sensitive information. This information may concern on-going business deals or even such internal drama as layoffs. Whatever the case, executive assistants are expected to keep this information confidential.

Additional Duties Assigned

Due to the nature of different companies, every executive assistant job is a little different. They may be asked to do a variety of specific tasks at any given time, such as event preparation, media outreach, training other assistants, and more. Executive assistants must, therefore, be very flexible and prepared to work with anything that’s thrown at them.

Job Satisfaction

Most executive assistants find their work very satisfying. They see how their work influences the functioning of the company on a day-to-day basis, and this translates into fulfilling work. Of course, there’s always the risk of working for a less-than-ideal boss, so it’s important for executive assistants to find an environment where they are appreciated and are able to maintain a healthy work-life balance.

What it Takes to Become an Executive Assistant

a lady executive assistant

A bachelor’s degree isn’t always required to become an executive assistant, but it certainly can’t hurt your likelihood of getting a job. Some employers also specifically require a degree. Aside from education, those looking to advance to an executive assistant position should typically have at least three years of working as an assistant in a professional environment.

Necessary skills include excellent oral and written communication, experience with computer programs such as Microsoft Office, good time management, organizational skills, and whatever else a company might request.

Job Market

Unfortunately, with technology increasingly taking over, the assistant positions available are decreasing. While the Bureau of Labor Statistics doesn’t have information for executive assistants specifically in terms of job growth, they expect that assistant positions in general will decrease by 5% between 2016-2026.

So, if you’re looking into becoming an executive assistant, make sure that you have the skills, education, and experience necessary to set you apart from the rest of the applicants looking for increasingly limited positions.

Executive Assistant Salary Range

While the average executive assistant salary is $59,400, the general range of most salaries is from $36,261 to $75,727. This is largely affected not only by location but also by the company they’re working for. A large corporation, for instance, will naturally have more funds allocated to an executive assistant than a smaller business likely will.

Highest Executive Assistant Employment Levels by State

Executive Assistant Employment Levels by State

If you’re intending to go into a profession that it is declining, it’s more important than ever that you’re in a location where more of these positions are available. Listed below are the states with the highest amounts of executive assistants as of May 2017.

Highest Executive Assistant Salaries by State

highest salary as executive assistant

In addition to knowing where you can get hired, of course, you want to know where you should get hired. Here are the top five highest paying states for executive assistants.

Highest Executive Assistant Salaries by Metropolitan Area

Executive assistants salary in metropolitan

Not all the top-paying states house the top-paying cities. Take a look at these metropolitan areas that offer the highest executive assistant salaries.

Final Thoughts on Executive Assistants

Executive assistants bring a lot of valuable skills to the table. They make the jobs of their employers significantly easier, and their work ensures the continued smooth operation of the company. With technology increasingly taking over, however, assistant positions in general are on the decline. Therefore, if you’re looking into becoming an executive assistant, it’s a good job with decent pay, but you should be fully aware of the difficult job market. To make yourself stand out from the crowd, be sure to lead with a confident personality and brush up on your software knowledge.

neurosurgeon salary

Neurosurgeon Salary – How Much Do They Make?

Taking a look at the average neurosurgeon’s salary will likely make your jaw drop. While surgeons in general are among the highest-paying categories of careers, neurosurgeons top that list, making on average of $583,583 as of 2018 according to the national data compiled by

And it’s no surprise: To become a neurosurgeon, the doctors must go through intensive schooling and six to seven years of residency before finally being a neurosurgeon in full. Neurosurgeons work on the organ of greatest importance and complexity: the brain. Therefore, they require extensive training, both mentally and physically. It is imperative that a neurosurgeon has steady hands.

Most current neurosurgeons have been in the game for a while. According to the data gathered by, over 49 percent of currently working doctors have over 10 years of experience, 19 percent of which have over 20 years of experience. Naturally, those doctors that are more experienced earn higher pay, increasing the median salary of neurosurgeons reported.

Neurology is a very difficult and precise science where mistakes cannot be afforded, and that’s why only the best make the cut and earn that top-notch salary.

What Do Neurosurgeons Do?

Neurosurgeons are brain specialists, treating and operating on the most important human organ. The typical work of a neurosurgeon includes operating on the brain to remove tumors, work on vascular systems, treat pain, and treat neurological diseases such as epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. In addition to their focus on the brain, neurosurgeons also treat and operate on the spinal cord and any peripheral nerves that might be impacting the brain or causing neurological problems.

Lead neurosurgeons are likewise responsible for directing a team while operating, ensuring that everyone is working smoothly together and that no mistakes are made. While operating, a neurosurgeon must make sure that their hands are very steady and precise. One false move even a fraction of a centimeter off could cause severe damage on such a complex and critical organ as the brain. For this reason, all neurosurgeons must be in possession of superb manual dexterity and hand-eye coordination.

Outside of the operating room, neurosurgeons are responsible for diagnosing their patients prior to operating. Diagnosis is just as critical as operating itself—an incorrect diagnosis can lead to further damage or a problem left untreated. So, in addition to being smooth and collected during surgery, brain surgeons need to be very knowledgeable about the brain and its maladies in the first place to back it up.

What Does it Take to Become a Neurosurgeon?

Lots and lots of schooling and training, that’s what. After completing a four-year undergrad degree, neurosurgeons go to medical school for another four years. After that, they then take on a residency position for another six to seven years before officially becoming an independent and licensed neurosurgeon.

a fractured leg

The first year of the residency is geared towards training, while the years following are more focused on hands-on action and learning through experience. Some residency programs require that their neurosurgeon-trainees pass the standard exam provided by the American Board of Neurological Surgery (ABNS) to become fully certified. Lots of residents also spend a year of their residency devoted to research.

Aside from the schooling and smarts required, it is also imperative that neurosurgeons have excellent hand-eye coordination and dexterity to be an effective physician.

A lot of work and effort goes into becoming a neurosurgeon, and certainly not everyone can do it. That’s why the neurosurgeon salary is immensely high.

The Demand for Neurosurgeons

Demand for Neurosurgeons

The demand for neurosurgeons is actually quite high. As mentioned above, not everyone is fit to be a neurosurgeon, and even fewer go through all the schooling and residency requirements to make it happen. And so, the high salary for neurosurgeons makes even more sense: With a high demand and little supply, this is a naturally well-paid position.

The market for neurosurgeons and surgeons in general is increasing. Between the years of 2016 to 2026, there is an estimated job growth of 13% according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. So, if you have a sharp mind and steady hands and plan to begin a medical profession in the next ten years, you might want to consider becoming a neurosurgeon.

Neurosurgeon Salary Range

Salary Range

While the national average of a neurosurgeon’s salary is $583,583, most fall within the range of $439,315 to $738,493. This isn’t a comprehensive range, with some neurosurgeons’ salaries falling below or even rising above it, but those are the outliers.

Salary Factors

There are, of course, multiple factors that affect a neurosurgeon’s salary.


Perhaps the biggest factor is years of experience, and rightly so. While a starting neurosurgeon may make around $300,000 or so a year, within five or six years this will have drastically grown to potentially almost double that.

Training and Specialization

Further training and knowledge, of course, make a neurosurgeon more valuable. If they go through special training programs, their value is sure to increase. While neurosurgery is already a specialized field, some specialize even further. This specialization in a particular area can drastically increase the salary of a neurosurgeon.


Location is an obvious factor. Different states and even different cities within those states have largely varying economies and demands, so these regional factors can have a decent impact on salaries. Furthermore, the actual physical type of hospital that neurosurgeon works in can have a great effect on their salary: a neurosurgeon would be likely to earn more in a specialty or private hospital, for instance, than in a public one.

How Neurosurgeon Salaries Compare to the Surgeon Salary Average

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the average yearly salary of a general surgeon is $208,000. While this is certainly no small number, it is much lower salary than average neurosurgeon salary of $583,583.

Top 5 Neurosurgeon Average Salaries by State

Average Salaries

As mentioned above, neurosurgeon salaries, just like those of any other profession, can be subject to location. Listed below are the five states that have reported the highest average neurosurgeon salary.

  • California
  • New York
  • Florida
  • Massachusetts
  • Illinois

Though pay can still vary greatly between multiple cities within each state, these states still maintain an average salary well above the national average in their major cities.

Top 5 Neurosurgeon Average Salaries by City

Neurosurgeon Average

Of course, the pay in individual cities can differ greatly from that of their overall state, but some of the top paying cities on this list do match with their top-listed state above. The cities with the highest average neurosurgeon salary according to research conducted by SumoSurvey are:

  • San Jose, CA: $641,308
  • New York, NY: $640,656
  • Los Angeles, CA: $595,722
  • Boston, MA: $586,811
  • Chicago, IL: $571,380

Neurosurgery Specializations

We mentioned earlier how one way to make more even more money as a neurosurgeon is by specializing in a particular subfield. But what are those subfields, and what does each entail?

1. Pediatrics


Most of the specializations you’ll see on this list revolve around a particular type of procedure or practice, but in this case, it revolves around the type of patient. Children’s brains are still developing as they grow, and because their brains are a bit smaller and more susceptible to change, neurosurgeons have to be extra careful when treating children. That’s why pediatrics in neurology falls under its own specialization, and an important one at that. Aside from treating head injuries and brain illnesses, neurosurgeons who specialize in pediatrics also treat birth defects.

2. Cerebrovascular

consulting a physician

Those who specialize in cerebrovascular surgery focus on the circulatory system of the brain. They monitor and adjust the brain’s blood flow to treat and prevent strokes and aneurisms.

3. Spine and Nerves


Of course, the brain is made of nerves, and it has a close relationship with the spinal cord. Those that specialize in spine and nerves, then, are looking closely at the brains relationship with the body. They treat and prevent spinal conditions such as paralysis and other nerve impairments that are connected to the brain.

4. Trauma


Neurosurgeons who specialize in neuro-trauma also have a close relationship with the spine. They treat patients who have recently undergone an accident and work to minimize damage to the brain and nervous system. They also treat patients that are in critical care.

5. Oncology

spine check up

An oncologist is the type of doctor you seek out if you find out you have cancer. A neurosurgeon with a specialization in oncology, then, works specifically on brain tumors. While all neurosurgeons have some background in this capacity, those who have studied and researched oncology deeply are of course preferred for such a sensitive manner and are therefore well-paid and in high demand.

Final Thoughts on Neurosurgeons

There’s no denying that neurosurgeons are paid an outrageous amount, but it is because they likewise have a high value and are in demand. Neurosurgeons go through vigorous training before they are certified, including extensive education and a long residency term, to ensure that they are as ready and capable as possible to treat patients on their own. Not many are fit to be a neurosurgeon, but if you have the skillset for it this might be a career path to consider, especially since its undergoing great amounts of job growth.

fist bump

Actuary Salary – Highest Actuary Employment Levels and Salaries by State

One job in the business world that is often overlooked is that of the actuary. Actuaries are business professionals who analyze statistics to determine the best risk management plans and policies. Actuaries make a pretty comfortable wage – the average salary for an actuary being recorded as $101,560 per year as of May 2017 by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Actuaries are well-educated, typically having studied actuary sciences while in school. They can be imperative to a business’ success by providing sound advice through statistical analysis and knowledge of current trends. Actuaries are particularly valuable to insurance companies, though they also frequently work on a consulting basis.

Your typical actuary will have several years of experience, though this is a position that is continually rising so there are a lot of new faces out there just getting started. As of 2018, over 48% of actuaries have a minimum of five years of experience, while 20% have at least ten years, and 8% have over twenty years, according to data compiled by

This is a male-dominated field, but the proportionate percentage of women in this role is definitely on the rise.

What is an Actuary and What Do They Do?

An actuary is a business professional who analyzes the latest statistics and trends to provide the best advice for their clients. Actuaries typically deal in risk management and mitigation, as well as measurement of costs and the likelihood of incidents happening in the first place.

The typical place for an actuary to work for is an insurance company—this follows natural logic, as the backbone of insurance companies is determining the likelihood of risks and what rates they should charge to cover them, or whether or not they will cover them at all if the risk is determined to be too high.

Insurance companies, of course, are not the only setting where an actuary can hope to apply their skills. By working with business clients, they can put their statistical and risk analysis skills to good use by consulting about different business strategies and investing options. Many actuaries work in a consulting fashion, working with their own set of clients. This can be more fun as you get to choose who you work with and develop close personal relationships with them. Working with certain clients may also require traveling, which can be considered as a great perk.

Some actuaries also choose to apply these skills by helping the everyday man. They offer consulting services to help adults plan out how best to invest in their retirement.

The Life of an Actuary

Actuaries seem to greatly enjoy their line of work. This is largely due to a feeling of satisfaction and impact—what they do matters. Important companies value their opinions, and they will consult with them before moving forward. They are also the minds that drive the function of insurance companies. The work of actuaries provides real, tangible results as they help shape the business world and make their clients succeed.


Without actuaries, there would be a dearth of knowledge and the statistical foundation upon which businesses rest would become unstable. Actuaries ensure the financial security of the business world. This knowledge and satisfaction make the intellectually stimulating work of actuaries well worth it.

Actuaries also express happiness with this role because of the work setting and atmosphere. Actuaries are needed everywhere, so this is a job that can move for you, rather than the other way around. Current actuaries report a low-stress work environment and a healthy work-life balance, and they have a comfortable salary to boot.

How to Become an Actuary

The first step to becoming an actuary is obtaining a bachelor’s degree. A great major to have is actuarial science, as this naturally trains and educates you for the job. Seeing as this is a fairly specialized major, however, many colleges might not offer it. If that’s the case, then you’ll want to major in another area with a quantitative focus such as math, computer science, finance, or a related field. If possible, try to gain some internship experience as an actuary while in school.

Once you’ve obtained your degree you may need to take a few extra relevant courses or trainings, depending on the qualifications necessary of where you’re applying.

graduation day

You’ll need to take an exam or two to become certified and apply for membership with an actuarial establishment. Once you’ve proven that your certified and well-qualified, you can begin the process of finding a job as an actuary.

It’s probably best that you look first in insurance and corporate settings for beginning your career. Once you’ve proven yourself and gained some experience, you can try to branch out and do consulting if that’s more your style.

Job Market

young executives

The job market for actuaries is actually pretty great as more and more businesses are recognizing the value of consulting with an actuary for before making any decisions. The actuary position is consistently ranked among top jobs in the United States. The market is quickly and drastically growing, too. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that they expect to see a 22% growth in this job between 2016-2026, which is much higher than the national average, which is only 7%.

Actuary Salary Range

dollar bills

While the average salary of an actuary in the US is $101,560 per year, the majority of salaries fall somewhere in the range of $50,141 – $145,810. Starting out, actuaries tend to earn between $45-$50,000, according to research conducted by CNN.

Salary Factors

As with any job, there are a variety of factors that account for the differences in salary between people of similar positions. Listed below are some of the primary factors that affect actuary salaries.


This is, of course, a huge factor in the salary level of an actuary. For a position like this in particular, where the work is all real-world application, you need the experience and the positive track record to show that you know what you’re doing and are worth the money.

statistical data on iPad

The entry-level salary of an actuary is still pretty good, but once you’ve got a few years of good experience under your belt you can expect it to drastically increase.


location symbol

Location is another prominent factor in salary discrepancy. Both the general economy of each state and the need for actuaries in it play a key role in determining salary.

Work Environment


The environment where you apply your actuary skills also has an impact on salary. For instance, an actuary can work for an insurance firm, in a corporate setting, or as a consultant. Within each of these categories are further subcategories, such as how large the business is the actuary is working for. The salary of an actuary consultant has a particularly wide range, due to the nature of working with different sets of clients and setting an independent schedule.

Highest Actuary Employment Levels by State


Of course, it’s not enough just to be certified as an actuary. They need to find employment, too. Below are listed the states that have the highest actuary employment levels as compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics as of May 2017.

  • New York: 2,580
  • Pennsylvania: 1,450
  • Illinois: 1,320
  • California: 1,200
  • Ohio: 1,190

Highest Actuary Salaries by State


As we noted above, the job’s location can greatly affect salaries. Here are the top five highest paying average salaries of actuaries by state.

  • New York: $145,180
  • District of Columbia: $127,960
  • Connecticut: $127,380
  • Georgia: $127,380
  • Washington: $121,330

Highest Actuary Salaries by Metropolitan Area


A state’s overall average salary can be greatly influenced by the average of its main cities and metropolitan areas, though sometimes these don’t quite match up and there’s a big difference between state and city. So, it’s worth noting what cities, rather than states, have the highest earning actuaries on average.

  • New York-Jersey City-White Plains, NY-NJ Metropolitan Division: $146,740
  • Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT: $145,560
  • Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY: $132,820
  • San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA Metropolitan Division: $132,750
  • Montgomery County-Bucks County-Chester County, PA Metropolitan Division: $130,750

Final Thoughts on Actuaries

All in all, being an actuary seems like a pretty sweet gig. There’s generally high satisfaction among those that work this job, the least of which has to do with the high paying actuary salary. Actuaries love their job because it is intellectually stimulating, often flexible, and the work they do matters.

If you’re looking into becoming an actuary, make sure that for your bachelor’s degree, you major in something quantitative. Or, if you’ve already gone through schooling and are looking to make a career change, consider taking business, finance, and statistics courses to increase your knowledge and prepare you for the actuary exams.

Great places to be as an actuary are naturally some of the bigger cities and populous states in the country, New York topping the list in terms of state and city wages in addition to employment levels.

The actuary career is on the rise, so don’t be afraid to jump in and be a part of it.

data analytics

Data Analyst Salary – A Rapidly Growing Career

Data analyst: it’s a career frequently talked about, but few actually know what it is. When asked to describe what a data analyst does, it’s not uncommon to hear someone say, “Umm… they analyze…data?” Yes, yes, they do. But what exactly does that mean?

Data analysts work closely with businesses from all walks of life, gathering data on how the business is performing, how their competitors match up, the business area as a whole, and a variety of other factors that all affect and contribute to a company’s success. They provide all the know-how for growing your business when it comes to cold, hard numbers, and they are becoming increasingly in demand.

The average data analyst salary as of May 2017 is $81,390 according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, a pretty comfortable wage depending on where you live. Most positions in this field come with medical, dental, and vision coverage.

This is a male-dominated field, with men composing approximately 62% of all data analysts. The amount of female data analysts has been on the rise, however, over the last several years.

A Quick Note: Data scientist and operations research analyst are other terms that are often used interchangeably with data analyst, though data scientist is actually a slightly more advanced version. Data analyst is a bit more colloquial, so we’ll be sticking with that for the duration of this article.

What Exactly Do Data Analysts Do?

Gather Data

As we touched on above, data analysts gather and analyze data concerning the business they’re employed for. It is not only important that they gather the business analytics for their specific company, but also as much as possible for the industry as a whole and their company’s direct competition.

data on iPad

Form Reports

Once they’ve compiled all the data, it’s time to organize it in reports, both for themselves and to present to their employers. These reports reveal directly how the company is faring in comparison to the industry standard and its competitors. Thorough data collections should also include information on the specifics of the company, such as how its website is performing, what products/services are most purchased, what marketing strategies have been most effective, etc.

data gathering


With all the data gathered and organized, a data analyst will then search for trends and look for patterns. Patterns are best recognized in data that has been collected periodically, so data analysts will have the most to work with after a few quarters or cycles after the company has implemented something new. By finding these patterns and trends, data analysts then report back to the heads of their companies with their findings and recommendations.

Data analysts are also typically responsible for setting up databases and programming different business frameworks, so they must also have a strong technical base in addition to statistical analysis skills.


Additionally, the position of data analyst is a very collaborative one. Not only do they work with the head people they provide the final information from, they must also collaborate with the people they gather the data from and fellow data analysts as they put it all together.


By working closely with a data analyst, a company can begin to make sense of their business analytics and build a plan and strategize. It is the data analyst’s goal to not only provide straight information, but also meaningful insights that will impact the business’ future performance.

Job Satisfaction

Overall, job satisfaction for data analysts is pretty high. Those that are in the field enjoy the mentally stimulating nature of their work and being in an environment that appreciates it. Another factor that plays a key role in job satisfaction is the large impact that the work of data analysts can have company-wide. Everyone wants to know that the work they’re doing matters, and as a data analyst, you’ll know for sure that it does.

team satisfaction

Any instances of dissatisfaction arise from when their work is not fully taken advantage of—for instance, working for a company that does not realize the value of their data and insights. Data analysts can avoid these setbacks, though, by making sure they have a clear understanding of what the hiring company’s expectations are.

How to Become a Data Analyst

To become a data analyst, you first need a bachelor’s degree. Preferred majors include math, computer science, statistics, finance, economics, or other majors that focus on statistics and analytics. While you technically only need a bachelor’s degree to start this role, to advance to upper and higher-paid positions, you may want to consider getting a master’s degree in one of these fields as well.

During this time, be sure to grow both your technical and business skills. Taking on an internship while in school is a great way to learn in a hands-on environment, and it will make you more marketable to employers once you have a degree.


You should also achieve a few data certifications. There are numerous certification types out there, so you should investigate each one and look at the companies you’re interested in working for to see their requirements.

Once you’ve achieved your degree and certifications, it’s time to put those skills to good use and start searching the job market.

Job Market

The job market for data analysts is a bit tricky to talk about. On the one hand, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reports a 27% growth in job outlook between 2016-2026. This is an incredible growth rate, especially when compared to the nation’s average of 7%. This growth includes all different variations of data analysts, though, so this should be considered.

Many of the duties of data analysts can now be performed by software, making the average data analyst obsolete in some cases. To stay relevant in the job market, then, both entering and established data analysts must figure out how to make themselves valuable alongside the software. They can do this by employing complex formulas and predictive models to the data and provide explanations of these higher-functioning systems for their employers.

data analyst

In this way, then, to stay relevant and be apart of the upward trend in data analyst job growth, the average data analyst should start becoming like the more advanced version of their profession: the data scientist. This may require a higher degree of education, but it will be worth it for the job security and greater employee value.

Data Analyst Salary Range

While the average data analyst salary is $81,390, most salaries all across the board fall somewhere in the range of $55,000 up to $117,000. This range is largely dependent on experience and education level. Most entry-level data analysts, for instance, have a starting salary of around $55,000, while those who make more have several years of experience under their belt and higher degrees of education.


Highest Data Analyst Employment Levels by State


So, where are data analysts most likely to find employment? We’ve listed below the highest data analyst employment levels by state according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics so that if you’re interested in pursuing a career as a data analyst you’ll know the right place to be.

  • California: 12,670
  • Texas: 11,400
  • Virginia: 9,200
  •  Illinois: 6,200
  • New York: 5,450

Highest Data Analyst Salaries by State


But in addition to knowing where data analysts can work, it’s also important to know where they should work. Here are the states where data analysts typically make the most money, and the average salary for each.

  • District of Columbia: $111,630
  • New Jersey: $107,270
  • Virginia: $104,680
  • New York: $99,880
  • Maryland: $98,160

Highest Data Analyst Salaries by Metropolitan Area


And, of course, the mean state wage is not necessarily indicative of what any given profession might make in a particular city. You’ll find that some cities on this list match up with a corresponding state above, but not all.

  • Newark, NJ-PA Metropolitan Division: $118,960
  • San Francisco-Redwood City-South San Francisco, CA Metropolitan Division: $112,360
  • Boulder, CO: $112,080
  • Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT: $109,610
  • California-Lexington Park, MD: $109,260

Final Thoughts on Data Analysts

If you have a penchant for finding patterns and statistical analysis, then going into the field of data analysis is a great choice for you. The typical data analyst is happy with their job, pleased to be doing work that is both mentally stimulating and important in a cooperative environment where their intellect is valued. Starting out, most data analysts make a comfortable salary, and there is a lot of room for improvement on that front as well.

The job market for data analysts is growing rapidly, so now’s a good time to start considering that career path. So long as you are well-qualified and provide the knowledge and know-how that technology can’t convey to a non-expert, you will be sure to stay relevant and be swept up in the growth of this position. More and more businesses are recognizing the importance of data analysts’ work and keen insights, and for good reason.

neurologist salary

A Review of a Neurologist’s Salary

The human mind is a fascinating, complex organ that has intrigued scientists and healthcare professionals for hundreds of years. Neurologists are medical professionals that are experts in neurological disorders and diseases that affect the nervous system. If these are what they do, how much is a Neurologist salary?

These healthcare professionals are tasked with researching the functions of the brain and to study issues that can develop in the brain or nerves. Using their extensive knowledge of the nervous system, neurologists who meet with patients must diagnose the issue and provide the patient with the best treatment plan.

Becoming a Neurologist

To become a neurologist, you must first earn your bachelor’s degree in a pre-med 4-year program. To continue on to higher education, aspiring neurologists must take the Medical College Admission Test or MCAT. The MCAT scores are what neurologists-in-training submit to medical schools when looking to continue their education.

To obtain their Doctor of Medicine degree, aspiring neurologists will go through about 2 years of classroom lectures and 2 years of rotations at a local hospital. Once they’ve received their doctorate, a neurologist-in-training must also be able to pass either the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) or the Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX) before they can apply to any internships or residency programs.

After Graduation

After graduation, aspiring neurologists will need to enter into a 1-year internship program in a surgery or internal medicine facility. Here, the neurologist will gain experience through rotations and interactions with physicians and patients.

After the internship is complete, the neurologist-in-training will sign up for a neurology residency program. During this 3-year program, neurologist residents will continue their education through lectures and case studies while gaining first-hand experience with patients. Many neurologists use their time as a resident to choose an expert to focus on, such as specific nerve areas or brain disorders. The final step to becoming a neurologist is to pass the state board to receive their medical license.

Neurologist Salary

A neurologist’s salary is widely dependent on the type of expertise they focus on. Neurologists who focus on the nervous system as a whole may find they don’t make as much money as those who found a particular specialty. Their salary also depends on where the neurologist job is located, as there are some states that pay a premium for neurologist doctors.

Average Neurologist Salary

The average neurologist salary is $205,560. However, neurologist salary can vary depending on the neurologist’s level of training and education, what they specialize in, and where they are located.

Neurologist Salary Factors and Influences

There are many factors that can affect the average neurologist salary. One major factor is the amount of experience you have. While all neurologists need to complete their doctorate to be considered for a job in their field, those who have plenty of experience are more likely to find higher paying jobs. Experience can be obtained through internships and residency programs.

Another factor that can affect neurologist salary is the type of practice they are employed in. Neurologists who work in public or state-run hospitals may make less than those in private practice. Many neurologists with larger salaries work at private practices that are well known for specific neurological focuses.


Location is also a factor that can affect how much a neurologist makes on average.

A neurologist may find better jobs in areas that are well known for neurological studies. For example, Mayo Clinic is located in Minnesota, creating a larger need for jobs in the neurological field. Neurologists in Minnesota make an average of $253,440. Areas with a high concentration of neurologists may not be willing to pay as high as those areas with a greater demand. We see this in states like New York, which has an average neurologist salary of $177,330.

Neurologist Salary Compared To Related Fields

Here, we take a look at how neurologist salaries compare to jobs in similar fields. These careers follow a similar education path, and most specialize in the study of the brain or nervous system.

Average Neuropsychologist Salary: $91,589

Neuropsychologists are medical professionals that focus on cognition in the brain. They study human behavior and the factors that can affect the central nervous system.

Average Neuroscientist Salary: $72,702

A neuroscientist’s job is to study the function of the nervous system. These scientists work closely with neurologists to research the brain and develop treatments for neurological disorders.

Average Psychologist Salary: $73,225

Psychologists study, diagnose and treat patients who have issues with human behavior. This can involve any aspect of a patient’s mental, emotional, or behavioral health. They work with patients to collect information to help diagnose behavioral issues such as depression or anxiety.

Average Biomedical Engineer Salary: $80,751

Biomedical engineers are tasked with designing and creating medical products such as artificial organs. They act as the bridge between the study of medicine and engineering and use aspects of both fields to solve clinical problems.

Average Epidemiologist Salary: $61,763

An epidemiologist is a health professional that investigates the patterns of disease and injury in humans. It is their job to collect and analyze data on public health issues to look for ways to prevent and treat them. Epidemiologists aim to prevent or reduce the risk of public health issues.

Average Pharmacist Salary: $115,780

Pharmacists take on a very specific role in the medical field, as they are the ones who control the distribution of medication to patients. It’s a pharmacist’s job to interpret and fill prescriptions, as well as educate patients about how their treatments can affect their health.

Neurologist Salary by State

A neurologist’s average salary can vary depending on where the clinic or practice is located.

The highest-paying neurologist positions can be found in states that are well known for their neurology studies. They can also be found in areas that have an overall higher cost of living. Below we have the top five states that pay neurologists the highest salary, according to Sokanu.

1. Average Neurologist Salary in New Hampshire: $272,820

2. Average Neurologist Salary in Wyoming: $259,940

3. Average Neurologist Salary in Minnesota: $253,440

4. Average Neurologist Salary in Wisconsin: $251,400

5. Average Neurologist Salary in South Dakota: $248,270

Next, we have the top five states with the highest concentration of neurologist jobs and their annual salary rates.

Even though demand for these jobs is higher, they also have a more saturated job market. This means greater competition for jobs that may pay less than in areas where the demand for neurologists is greater than the supply.

1. Average Neurologist Salary in New York: $177,330

2. Average Neurologist Salary in California: $201,790

3. Average Neurologist Salary in Texas: $207,750

4. Average Neurologist Salary in Pennsylvania: $197,250

5. Average Neurologist Salary in Florida: $219,010

Finally, we take a look at the bottom five states with the lowest neurologist salaries.

Demand for neurologists is much lower in these states, which can likely be attributed to a lack of facilities that are equipped for neurology practices.

1. Average Neurologist Salary in Mississippi: $183,280

2. Average Neurologist Salary in Arkansas: $181,880

3. Average Neurologist Salary in New York: $177,330

4. Average Neurologist Salary in Kentucky: $174,760

4. Average Neurologist Salary in Nebraska: $163,730

Neurologist Types of Salaries

How much a neurologist makes can depend on their level of expertise. Neurologists who are just entering their residency will make far less than those who have been working at a practice for years. Below we have the average neurologist salaries for different levels of expertise, as reported by Sokanu.

1. Average Entry-Level Neurologist Salary: $59,090

2. Average Mid-Level Neurologist Salary: $119,120

3. Average Senior Neurologist Salary: $206,920

History of Neurologists

Scientists and medical professionals have been studying the brain for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. The academic practice of neurology began in the 16th century, which saw an increase in academic research thanks to the Renaissance era. With the invention of the printing press, early neurologists were able to print publications of their research on the nervous system. This sparked greater interest in the field of neurology that continued to grow throughout the next few hundred years.

Modern Neurology

Modern neurology began around the 1950s, after the World War II era. During this time, there was an influx of scientific and medical research that followed the end of the war. This decade saw the recognition of neurological disorders that needed to be researched, especially in the wake of soldiers coming back from combat. The next few decades saw great advances in the field of neuroscience, including the introduction of the Society for Neuroscience in 1970.

Today, there are neurologists that focus on a variety of different aspects of the nervous system. There are neurologists who study movement disorders, headaches, seizures, and speech and language disorders. With today’s population living longer than ever before, there is a greater need than ever for qualified neurologists.

Neurologist Salary Outlook – Conclusion

According to the Bureau of Labor, neurologists fall into the category of physicians and surgeons. The expected job growth for physicians and surgeons between 2016 and 2026 is 13%, which is faster than the average for all professions.

The field of neuroscience will continue to grow as more research on the nervous system is carried out. Despite the years of research, there are still many questions that need to be answered. These will be the questions that fuel the neurological studies of the future.

Featured Image: CCO Public Domain, National Cancer Institute via

phlebotomist salary and what we need to know

A Review of a Phlebotomist’s Salary

Phlebotomists are medical professionals that specialize in the study of blood and other bodily fluids. They train Phlebotomists in the skill of drawing blood from patients to collect samples. Here, we will cover as much information as we can about Phlebotomist salary.

They use these samples for a variety of different medical applications, such as research, testing, transplants, or donations. Phlebotomists typically work at clinical practices or non-profit organizations and spend their workdays carefully drawing and transferring blood and other fluid samples from the patient to the lab.

What is a Phlebotomist?

These blood samples are known as venipunctures. Once at the lab, they test the blood samples to reveal the status of the patient’s health. They also use blood samples to test for diseases and get a better view of how a patient’s internal organs are functioning.

The work of a phlebotomist calls for a steady hand, as a single mistake could cause harm to the patient or contaminate the blood samples.

Before drawing blood, a phlebotomist should take the time to explain the entire procedure to the patient. This will ensure that the patient knows exactly what to expect during the blood drawing process.

What Device Do They Use

Phlebotomists use a special type of medical device that is able to draw the blood up from the vein and into a tube. These tubes are sealed and sent to the lab, where technicians can use them for a variety of different blood sample tests.

There are no educational requirements needed to get a job as a phlebotomist, though a phlebotomist-in-training does need to go through training from a certified medical professional. Many employers look for both classroom training and on-the-job experience in applications from certified phlebotomists. Phlebotomist certification programs can be completed at many community colleges or medical vocational programs.


The American Society for Clinical Pathology phlebotomist certification process takes about 40 hours of classroom studies, followed by about 120 hours of experience drawing blood from patients. A candidate must also have 100 successful instances of unaided blood collections.

There is another certification from the National Phlebotomy Association that requires longer classroom hours, an internship, and classes on venipuncture methods.

Average Phlebotomist Salary

The average salary for a phlebotomist is $33,750. This is lower than the average job in the medical field, as there are lower education and training requirements to get a job as a phlebotomist. Phlebotomists can also work part-time and make an average of $14.15 per hour.

A phlebotomist’s salary can depend on their level of training and education, what kind of patients they see, and if they have experience with other medical skills.

Phlebotomist Salary Factors and Influences

A career in phlebotomy is very flexible, and many phlebotomists are able to find work no matter where they are. Experience is one of the major factors that can affect how much a phlebotomist makes. However, there are a few factors that can influence how much money a phlebotomist makes. One major factor is location, as there are many locations with a high demand for phlebotomists with practices willing to pay a premium price.

Phlebotomists that have years of experience are more likely to make a high salary than those who are just starting out.

On the Job Experience

Experience can be gained through internships, vocational programs, and certification training. Another factor is the type of patients they work with, as the process of drawing blood from an adult may be entirely different than drawing blood from a child.

Phlebotomists with experience taking blood from children or the elderly may have a higher value than those without.

Phlebotomist Salary Compared To Related Fields

Below we take a look at how the average salary of the phlebotomist compares to the salary of other medical professionals.

There are many jobs in the medical field that have similar requirements to a job in phlebotomy. Most of these jobs require a higher level of education and training than a job in phlebotomy.

Average Annual Phlebotomist  Salary: $33,750

Medical Laboratory Scientist Average Annual Salary: $52,000

Dental Assistant Average Annual Salary: $32,000

Histotechnologist Average Annual Salary: $62,440

Patient Care Technician Average Annual Salary: $28,000

Medical Assistant Average Annual Salary: $30,683

Phlebotomist Salary by State

The salary of a phlebotomist may depend on where the job opportunities are located. The highest-paying phlebotomist positions can be found in areas that are heavily populated or where the cost of living is high.

Below we have the top five states with the highest phlebotomist salaries according to Sokanu:

1. Phlebotomist Average Annual Salary in California: $43,380

2. Phlebotomist Average Annual Salary in Alaska: $43,290

3. Phlebotomist Average Annual Salary in New Hampshire: $40,930

4. Phlebotomist Average Annual Salary in Connecticut: $40,390

5. Phlebotomist Average Annual Salary in Massachusetts: $39,9720

The saturation of the job market in a particular area can also affect how much money a phlebotomist makes.

Below we have the salaries of the top five states that employ phlebotomists, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

As you can see, these numbers fluctuate more and are typically lower due to the balance of supply and demands for phlebotomist jobs.

1. Phlebotomist Average Annual Salary in California: $43,380

2. Phlebotomist Average Annual Salary in Texas: $31,780

3. Phlebotomist Average Annual Salary in Florida: $31,140

4. Phlebotomist Average Annual Salary in New York: $39,200

5. Phlebotomist Average Annual Salary in North Carolina: $30,700

Finally, we have the five states that pay the least for phlebotomy jobs as reported by Sokanu.

These states are likely to have a low demand for phlebotomists.

This may be attributed to a higher concentration of phlebotomists on the job market or a lack of dedicated facilities for phlebotomists to work at.

1. Phlebotomist Average Annual Salary in Florida: $31,140

2. Phlebotomist Average Annual Salary in New Mexico: $29,010

3. Phlebotomist Average Annual Salary in Arkansas: $28,750

4. Phlebotomist Average Annual Salary in South Dakota: $28,040

5. Phlebotomist Average Annual Salary in Mississippi: $27,770

Types of Phlebotomist Salary

There are a few different types of jobs that a phlebotomist can take on in the medical field. A phlebotomist’s salary may vary based on what type of work they are doing.

Average Annual Mobile Phlebotomist  Salary: $29,413

These phlebotomists travel around with mobile clinical operations to visit clients for blood samples. They can also work for non-profit organizations that collect blood for donations.

Average Certified Phlebotomist Salary: $30,061

Phlebotomists that take the time to get their certifications to earn more than those who enter the field without one. These phlebotomists have more experience and are much less likely to make mistakes, which can end in costly lawsuits.

Registered Nurse Phlebotomist Average Salary: $60,000

Many who study the field of phlebotomy find that becoming a registered nurse is the best way to get a high paying job.

Registered nurses have more responsibilities than phlebotomists that focus solely on drawing blood. Getting a job as a Registered Nurse Phlebotomist will require at least an Associate degree, though many employers prefer a bachelor’s degree.

Phlebotomy Supervisor Average Salary: $43,870

After years of experience, a phlebotomist may be promoted to a phlebotomy supervisor.

These senior phlebotomists are often put in charge of a practice’s entire phlebotomy team. Many are also responsible for managing the sample laboratory and training of new phlebotomists. They can also use their experience to train new phlebotomists in all of the best venipuncture techniques.

History of Phlebotomy

The study and testing of blood can be dated all the way back to ancient Egyptian, Greek, and Roman civilizations. Doctors of these times would remove blood from the body in a procedure known as bloodletting, believing that it would rid the body of illness and evil spirits.

Draining blood was one of the most popular ways to treat a patient at this time, and they practice it on patients to treat everything from headaches to fevers to inflammation.

They eventually banned bloodletting in the 18th due to concerns of the patient’s health and risk of contamination.

The scientific approach to phlebotomy didn’t arise until after they banned bloodletting, as medical professionals looked for a way to safely remove blood from the body.

Research Results

Through hundreds of years of research, scientists finally realized that germs that were the root of illnesses, not an imbalance of fluids. It was not long before they began to study the blood to find other uses, which sparked the start of phlebotomy as a study.

Modern phlebotomists have a much better idea of how to safely remove blood from the body than the phlebotomists of the past. Rather than remove the blood as a treatment, they take blood samples from patients and transferred to a lab for a test.

Today’s methods of phlebotomy are clean, efficient, and require minimal patient recovery time.

Phlebotomist Salary Outlook – Conclusion

There will always be a demand for phlebotomists, as blood sample tests are one of the best ways to get a clear picture of a patient’s health.

In the next 10 years, they expect the employment of phlebotomists to grow up to 25%. Along with clinical practices, many mobile blood centers and blood donation organizations are looking to employ more phlebotomists to keep up with their needs.

Phlebotomists who are looking to move forward in their career may want to look into adding other medical degrees or certifications to their resume.

Featured image: CC0 Public Domain via Pxhere

what does a software engineer do and what is software engineer salary

A Review of a Software Engineer Salary

Businesses operating in the modern technological era often need to solicit the services of software engineers to create personalized software and applications for their company. This review is all about a software engineer salary.

Likewise, software engineers must write, edit, and test programs for their clients to provide them with a seamless finished product. Software engineers can also work in a variety of different market sectors, and their salary can vary greatly based on what industry they end up working for.

A Bachelor’s degree in software, math, or science is required to get a job as a software engineer.

The Field of Software Engineers

The software engineering field changes rapidly, as new innovations and technologies push software to a higher level. Also, a successful software engineer will need to keep up with the newest training, and many continue their education while working. Software engineers who spend time earning secondary or higher degrees can expect a generous bump in their salary.

In addition, software engineer salary can fluctuate depending on what area of expertise the engineer decides to focus on. Many software engineers pick an area to specialize in so they can become experts in that particular area of development. This can include specializations in application development, systems development, and web development as well.

Particularly, application development engineers develop custom programs for a specific end-user need. Systems software engineers are tasked with the organization and maintenance of a business’ computer system. Web development engineers also develop software and applications that are run through Web browsers.

Average Software Engineer Salary

The average software engineer salary is $104,463. This number can vary greatly depending on the software engineer’s level of training and education, what type of work they specialize in, what industry they work in, and location of employment as well.

Software Engineer Salary Factors and Influences

There are a lot of factors that may affect the salary of a software engineer.

Also, the title can cover a wide variety of employment needs, meaning the responsibilities of one software engineer might be entirely different from another software engineer. For example, a software engineer might be permanently employed by a company to manage their computer systems, while another might work on a per-project basis for different clients.

Software Industry

The industry where you are employed also plays a factor in the average software engineer salary. The salary for a software engineer in a highly competitive industry, such as the healthcare or pharmaceutical industry, will be much higher than more common industries such as manufacturing.

A software engineer’s salary is also based on the current need in the community where they are employed. Software engineers working in large urban areas are likely to find better job opportunities than in suburban or rural areas. These engineers will likely find the highest salary in locations that are known for being technology hubs.

Software Engineer Salary Compared To Related Fields

Here we take a look at how software engineer salaries compare to jobs in similar fields. These jobs all have similar experience requirements, and all fall under the category of computer sciences.

1. Software Engineer Average Salary: $104,463

2. Computer Hardware Engineer Average Salary: $115,675

3. Computer Programmer Average Salary: $71,757

4. Computer Network Architect Average Salary: $102,488

5. Database Administrator Average Salary: $71,429

6. Robotics Engineer Average Salary: $98,830

Software Engineer Salary by State

The average software engineer salary can fluctuate depending on the location of the job. The highest-paying software engineer jobs are often found in areas that are heavy with technology-based businesses. These are typically urban areas, as we can see below.

Here is the top five states are known to offer the highest software engineer salaries as reported by Sokanu.

1. Software Engineer Average Salary in Washington: $128,580

2. Software Engineer Average Salary in California: $119,442

3. Software Engineer Average Salary in Alaska: $119,120

4. Software Engineer Average Salary in New York: $112,584

5. Software Engineer Average Salary in Virginia: $110,030

Comparison to the Highest Population

In comparison, here are the top five states with the highest population of software engineers according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, along with the annual salary from each state.

As you can see, the demand for these jobs is high even in those areas with the largest concentration of software engineers.

1. Software Engineer Average Salary in California: $119,442

2. Software Engineer Average Salary in Texas: $107,280

3. Software Engineer Average Salary in Washington: $128,580

4. Software Engineer Average Salary in New York: $112,584

5. Software Engineer Average Salary in New Jersey: $107,040

Lowest Software Engineer Salary

Finally, we have listed the five states with the lowest software engineer salaries, according to Sokanu. Demand for software engineers is lower in these states, as they do not have as high of a concentration of businesses that are technology-based.

1. Software Engineer Average Salary in Kentucky: $79,320

2. Software Engineer Average Salary in South Dakota: $78,230

3. Software Engineer Average Salary in Montana: $75,610

4. Software Engineer Average Salary in Louisiana: $74,000

5. Software Engineer Average Salary in Wyoming: $68,730

Software Engineer Types of Salaries

Entry-Level Software Engineer Average Salary: $76,439

Thus, software engineers at the entry level are responsible for designing and developing software, often on an individual project basis.

Entry-level software engineers will also be tasked to evaluate software analysis, and are often the person who does the final install on the end-user device. Entry-level software engineers need to have at least a bachelor’s degree and should have experience in coding languages such as JavaScript, C++, and CSS.

Software Engineer II Average Salary: $83,215

This next level of software engineer employment adds some extra responsibility on the employee. They tasked software engineers with in-depth coding, testing, debugging, and troubleshooting throughout the software development process as well. This job typically requires between 2 to 4 years of experience.

Senior Software Engineer Average Salary: $107,600

A senior software engineer is the highest level of software engineer employment, and often involves the addition of managerial duties.

Senior software engineers also take on the responsibility of developing high-end software that they implement in large-scale businesses. They overlook every aspect of the software engineer process from start to finish. This career typically requires between 5 to 7 years of experience as well.

Computer Software Development Engineer Average Salary: $112,000

These software engineers also focus on the development of computer software that their clients can use..

Computer software development engineers are incredibly familiar with computer operating systems and are able to create applications and software systems that can integrate seamlessly. This career typically requires 3 to 5 years of job experience.

Web Development Software Engineer Average Salary: $72,150

Web development engineers make applications and systems that run on web browsers such as Google Chrome, Firefox, or Safari. They are also responsible for designing and coding client websites as well. Software engineers looking for a web development job should have knowledge of HMTL, CSS, JavaScript, and API. This career typically requires 1 to 2 years of job experience.

Application Development Software Engineer Average Salary: $68,000

These days, many companies are looking to widen their customer reach through the development of easy-to-use mobile applications.

Moreover, these engineers use programming languages such as Java or ORACLE to develop applications that they can run on a variety of operating systems. They are also responsible for testing out the application before releasing it to the public to work out any bugs. This career typically requires 2 to 5 years of job experience as well.

History of Software Engineers

Software engineering as a profession started during the birth of the technological age. The term was first used in 1968 at the NATO Science Committee, which focused on finding solutions for the software crisis of the 1960s.

In addition, the software crisis caused by various issues with software development at the time, such as budget overruns, missed deadlines, inefficient products, and even property damage too. The profession of software engineer also came to be as young engineers took to solving the problems of the software crisis.

The Development of Software Engineer

Throughout the following decades, newly dubbed software engineers began to work on fixing the software crisis. The 1970s also saw the development of structured programming and early software design methods, while the 1980s brought the development of the Ada and C++ programming languages. The release of Java in the mid-1990s can be attributed to the large boost in software engineer employment as businesses tried to adapt to the new trends as well.

Furthermore, by the early 2000s, software engineers have become one of the most sought-after employees.

Companies around the world were looking to integrate their business models with the newest technologies. Today, there are also software engineers working in every industry to help businesses create and manage software that helps keep everything running smoothly and efficiently.

Moreover, a new influx of software engineers has emerged as of late as more businesses look to develop personalized mobile apps.

Software Engineer Salary Outlook – Conclusion

As technology continues to rapidly advance every day, the demand for software engineers will only continue to grow. They also expected software engineer field to grow by approximately 24% by 2026. In comparison, the average growth rate for all occupations is at 7%.

Additionally, the main reason for the projected growth is the need for a computer software system, smartphone and tablet applications.

Also, many large industries are now investing more capital into computer software to provide a better product or service for their customers. For example, many companies in the healthcare industry have been looking to create applications that allow them to easily communicate with patients and share medical information between departments as well.

Featured image: CC0 Public Domain Pexels via Pixabay

Cracker Barrel's Signage in front of the store taken by a a Cracker Barrel Employee

Cracker Barrel Employee Salary: Know Your Expectations and the Reality

Each Cracker Barrel Employee plays an integral role in the 653 restaurants in 45 states across the United States. Cracker Barrel remains as a good old-fashioned stop for anyone traveling through the interstate which brought its start. This increased travel across the new interstate systems brought with it a need for consistently delicious and nutritious food.

The Role of a Cracker Barrel Employee

 Indoor View at the restaurant with Cracker Barrel Employee Eating and Drinking Together Image: CC by 2.0, Eugene Kim, via Flickr​

Cracker Barrel sells over 200 million biscuits to over 217 million guests every single year. This means that they have a need for employees who serve all these customers with great Southern hospitality and a smile.

If you are interested in working as a  Cracker Barrel employee, they opened different positions just for you. You just need to find what suits right for you. They need servers, cooks, and table bussers.

Success in many of these positions relies on excellent customer service skills and an understanding of the “soul” of Cracker Barrel.

The aspirants just need to firmly understand the history of this restaurant and why so many millions of customers flock to it every year. Other positions have a higher salary available, like those of General Store Managers, Assistant Managers, and Operations Managers.

These positions as a Cracker Barrel employee require vital skills such as leadership, budgeting, and scheduling for other employees. These positions come with a great deal of responsibility. People in these positions handles each employee concern, affairs. and career growth.

Cracker Barrel Employee Average Salary

Cracker Barrel Employee Withdrawing Salary in an ATM Machine near the restaurant Image: Public Domain US, Adam Gazari, via Pexels​

Accordingly, salaries vary slightly from state to state, but overall the wages for each Cracker Barrel employee appear relatively similar. No surprise, there exists plenty of likeness between these franchise locations. These ranges from menu items to the retail items they sell within each store to salaries for employees.

The Cracker Barrel Employee average salary varies mostly by role. Primarily, the job title determines the monthly payment. Beyond that, some skills make a difference in salary among similar job titles.

That being said, the average hourly wage at Cracker Barrel remains ar $8.92 per hour.

Hourly wages vary from $3.54 per hour to $12.87 per hour. If someone applies for an hourly position at Cracker Barrel, expect the monthly payments to come out like that. However, some of these hourly positions, like servers, take-home tips. This increases the hourly wage and yearly total.

Sample Cracker Barrel Employee average wages (Position-based)

  • Server: $3.54 per hour
  • Grill cook: $10.97 per hour
  • Cashier: $8.48 per hour

However, if someone aspires for a salaried position at Cracker Barrel, they surely make much more. Salaried wages at Cracker Barrel range from $35,000 per year to $73,000 per year. With these larger wages comes more responsibilities though.

  • General Restaurant Manager: $63,236
  • Restaurant Assistant Manager: $49,569

As you can see, the position someone has at Cracker Barrel makes a huge difference. Although, this acts only as one of the factors that influence salary. Compared to them, the sales associate has a range different salary.

Cracker Barrel Employee Salary Factors and Influences

Many of the positions available as a Cracker Barrel Employee can be easily affected by outside factors. Some of those factors may be a skill set and experience in the field.

Also, the same goes for a particular position and location to name a few. However, each of these factors carries more or less weight depending on the position someone works. Surely, those working as a dermatologist earn differently from a cracker barrel employee.

For example, a server’s wage is probably most affected by their skills within that job and how much experience they have. A server with three years of experience works confidently and then receive larger tips than someone with only one year of experience.

In contrast, a manager’s salary will likely be affected greatly by their acquired skills just as a software engineer. You need inventory management or operations management skills as well. Years of experience also matter for managers, but they receive a larger salary instead of tips.

Salary of a Cracker Barrel Employee Compared to Other Restaurants

Two Dollars Left above a Notebook at aCracker Barrel Table by a Customer for the Cracker Barrel Employee  Image: CC by A-SA 2.0, grendelkhan, via Flickr​

Each Cracker Barrel Employee’s salary seems higher than many other restaurants, at least for salaried employees. As mentioned before, the average restaurant manager at Cracker Barrel makes $49,569. Compare that to the following salaries from other restaurants.

Average Restaurant Manager salary (Per Restaurant):

  • Denny’s: $36,754
  • Applebee’s: $45,490
  • Red Lobster: $48,298

On the other hand, the wages for other fronts of house staff, like servers and hosts, stay similar across most restaurants. The average hourly wage for a server at Cracker Barrel remains at $3.54 per hour, compared to the same restaurants.

Average Server wage (Per Restaurant):

  • Denny’s: $2.40
  • Applebee’s: $3.85
  • Red Lobster: $4.25

Skills for Salary Increase for a Cracker Barrel Employee

Salary Received by each a Cracker Barrel Employee Held and Shown by their hands 
Image: CC by A-SA 2.0, 401(K) 2012, via Flickr

Again, the skills that will increase Cracker Barrel employee salary depends heavily on the position that employee works. There exist stark differences in the skills affecting salary between the examples used so far: a restaurant manager and a server.

A restaurant manager has their salaries affected largely by management skills. For example, restaurant managers need adept at managing people, as well as scheduling a large group of employees.

Additionally, a general restaurant manager needs to understand operations management, from ordering food to overseeing financial information. These skills remain incredibly important to a manager at any restaurant. Especially. for a Cracker Barrel where restaurants have a retail center.

Skills that affect a server’s pay, on the other hand, remain less overarching and more focused on the customer experience. How a server interacts with a customer will be the biggest indicator of success as a server.

Consequently, that alone leads to promotions that involve training other servers and raises in their base hourly wage. Tips always affect the considerations of the wage for each server. Most of the skills that increase a server’s take-home pay depends on customer interaction

Servers receive most of their pay directly from customers. No matter what role an employee takes at Cracker Barrel, the skills affect how much each employee makes, whether from raises or tips.

From the top of the company to the bottom, they develop the skills that make you better at your job. This usually results in an increase in either salary, hourly wage, or tips.

History of Cracker Barrel

Cracker Barrel Outdoor View at Irlo Bronson Kissimmee where each Cracker Barrel Employee works for success Image: CC by A-SA 3.0, Ivan Curra, via Wikipedia Commons​

Dan Evins opened the first Cracker Barrel after realizing the need for America’s popular and expanding interstate systems consistency and quality food along with their trips. He began to plan a country store, where travelers get a good meal at a fair price.

But, this happened shortly after his idea began to grow. Evins had an uncle named Herschel McCartney, and he became the soul of Cracker Barrel. This became a place where they offer Southern hospitality that accompanied their mission of pleasing people.

These days, Cracker Barrel still strives to be a home away from home for travelers. Their mission to please people remains. The best way to do that is to be open and welcoming to everyone.

Cracker Barrel Employees needs to pay attention to every detail to provide a consistent, pleasant, and seamless experience for all customers every day.

Cracker Barrel, as a company, hopes to be “trusted curators” of a way of life that appears distinctly American.

It remains as a way of life that they hope everyone who walks through their many doors feels. Hospitality and charm keep the leaders at Cracker Barrel to strive and move forward to success.

The Total Outlook of a Cracker Barrel Employee

Cracker Barrel Old Country Store at Morrisville, North Carolina where each Cracker Barrel Employee works for career growth and professionalism Image: CC by A-SA 3.0, Ildar Sagdejev, via Wikipedia Commons​

Employees of Cracker Barrel can expect to feel comfortable knowing that this company is deeply ingrained in the American countryside. While some restaurants may be experiencing difficulties keeping their doors open, Cracker Barrel’s outlook is quite good.

According to Forbes, Cracker Barrel’s prolific presence in America (650 restaurants in 45 states) means that they are a very stable restaurant company. Other positive indicators for Cracker Barrel include the fact that revenue was stable, with little to no change, year after year from 2017.

While restaurants saw a slight, single-digit decline in visitors, menu prices were also raised to combat that change. It appears that the company Cracker Barrel is doing well currently, and the outlook for this company is good.

Menu prices are not the only thing that can be adjusted to combat low guest traffic at this restaurant. Because Cracker Barrels also feature gift shop-like retail areas, this company has an additional flow of revenue to fall back on when necessary.

As a result of these indicators of stability, employees at Cracker Barrel can feel comfortable knowing that the company they work for most likely will not be closing any time soon.

Some Cracker Barrel employee salary changes may occur, particularly if revenue begins to increase, but also as the minimum wage is raised across the United States.

Featured Image: CC by 2.0, Mike Mozart, via Flickr

sales associate-Cashier at the hotel

Sales Associate Salary

For most young adults, a job as a sales associate is a great place to start developing soft skills that will benefit them throughout their future careers, regardless of what field they choose to enter. However, a career as a sales associate has the potential to be lucrative for older adults as well, depending on the industry.

Within industries that account for commissions, a talented sales associate may see a salary thousands of dollars greater than industries without commission-based salaries.

Excellent Customer Service

Sales associates are responsible for nearly every factor of a customer’s experience while shopping at a store. At many stores, sales associates assist with setting up displays of items for sale, providing excellent customer service, handling money and working with intricate computer point of sales systems, and much more.

By learning each of these tasks and working diligently, a sales associate becomes more valuable to a company and therefore may be rewarded with raises or promotions.

Given the tasks that sales associates perform, most training for this position is completed on the job. For most sales positions, a high school diploma is enough education to advance within a store because these are skills that many people are able to pick up as needed, particularly if they are motivated.

Trainings or Management Seminars

If sales associates are looking to advance quickly, they may want to be proactive and undertake trainings that will make them more competitive in their field, such as safety trainings or management seminars.

There are many factors that can affect the salary of a sales associate. The length of time you work within the industry has some effect on salary, but the skills you attain and the career track you decide on will sway the average pay too. Finally, a major influence on the pay of a sales associate is location. Many states in the United States have differing minimum wages. Location will not only influence your starting pay, but it will also impact your long-term wages in the field.

Average Associate Salary

For sales associates, pay can range from the lowest minimum wage, $7.25 per hour, to a competitive rate for the highest minimum wage in the United States, $15 per hour. With these variations, the average pay is typically $9.75 per hour, though the median wage is $9.91 per hour.

As discussed above, there are a variety of factors that affect the actual salary for a sales associate. However, there are steps people in this industry can take to positively influence salary growth for themselves, including developing specific skills and maintaining an excellent record of employment within the company.

Associate Salary Factors and Influences

Like other professions, sales associates can expect their salaries to vary greatly depending on a wide array of factors. In fact, so many factors affect this position that the annual take-home pay of this job ranges from $16,767 - $46,974. The national average for annual take-home pay is roughly $22,000.

If someone employed in this field also makes tips, in addition to their hourly wage, they can expect to take home extra money from $0.09 to $4.93 per hour. In the case of overtime pay, the standard addition is one-and-a-half times the standard hourly wage, ranging from $8.92 to $24.07 per hour.

Yet other factors may affect the average wages for sales associates even more. An annual bonus could add up to $15,000 to a sales associate salary, while commission-based pay can help a sales person make up to $30,000 more per year. One more factor that could lead to extra pay is profit sharing by the company, which may lead to an additional $100 or an extra $6,000.

Salary Compared to Other Fields

There are a few fields of work that are similar to that of a sales associate. These positions tend to make slightly more than a sales job due to the additional responsibilities that these employees must take on to complete their every day tasks. Take a look at some of these other roles.

The Average Salary:

  1. Administrative Assistant: $38,756
  2. Customer Service Representative: $36,535
  3. Retail Store Assistant Manager: $42,789

For each of these three positions, serving a few years as a sales associate will benefit a job seeker. An employee will learn many of the skills necessary for these other roles, such as interpersonal communications, leadership skills, and operations management, along with several others.

For many people who have a job in the retail field, starting as a sales associate is very typical. Many retail stores hire from within for jobs like Assistant Store Manager or even for corporate positions within a larger retail chain. Plus, this is a great position to be able to fall back on if someone ever needs. When you already have the experience necessary to perform these tasks, you will be an excellent hire for almost any company.

Salary By State

The national average sales associate salary hovers around $22,000 per year. One of the main differences among the sales associate salary is location. Depending on where someone lives, they could be making a drastically different wage in the same role, simply due to a different minimum wage.

Average Salary:

  1. national salary: $22,000
  2. Washington: $33,270, average hourly wage $16.00
  3. Georgia: $24,560, average hourly wage $11.81
  4.  Minnesota: $27,710, average hourly wage $13.32

As you can see, the difference in average hourly wage corresponds unsurprisingly to average salary. Making over four dollars more per hour results in almost $9,000 more annually for the average retail sales associate salary.

Skills That Increase Salaries for Sales Associates

There are many skills that will increase the salary for sales associates, but some have a greater effect than others. While knowing computer programs such as Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Office will give you a moderate boost in salary (2-8%), other skills bring much more lucrative salary boosts.

Learning a skill like account sales or field sales has the greatest impact on salary based on skills. These two skills increase sales associate salaries by 47% and 49%, respectively. Other skills that have a positive impact on this salary, raising wages above the national average, include customer relationship management, sales management, and inside sales.

There are some skills in this field, however, that do not provide a steady boost in wages. You may want to leave skills like customer relations or customer service off your resume because those skills do not seem to increase the salary of sales associates above the national average of $22,000.

History of the Sales Career

Sales have been part of the human economy for centuries, dating back to merchants in guilds since at least the Middle Ages. It is no surprise that sales roles have changed drastically since then, but they have even changed a lot in just the last century.

As department stores became important to our economies, sales roles became less about working one general store and more about serving customers within a set niche of products. Before there was Macy’s, there were small, independent stores with smaller workforces.

Different Roles of a Sales Associate

Nowadays, a sales role may seem to change even more quickly. These roles are no longer viewed as necessary to all sales – instead, sales associates have different roles within stores, changing even in the last decade.

As digital facets of shopping have grown, we see more tech in stores from the computer-based point of sale systems to handheld tools that help associates with sorting out stock. There are even apps that store employees can use to help customers find their exact size, maybe at another of that brand’s store.

Outlook for Sales Careers

While many people tend to believe that digital stores will triumph over traditional, physical stores – meaning sales associates will be out of work and unnecessary – that is likely untrue. Many customers still prefer to go into stores and interact with someone to find the perfect fit of a suit or the right technology to suit their needs.

It is much more likely that as shopping evolves, this role will as well. Stores will begin to find it necessary for associates to carry mobile devices that help employees assist customers in the most convenient and efficient manner possible. This will include immediate access to available stock in store, the ability to order an unavailable item for a customer right away, and more efficient customer-centric activities.

Personal Touch for In-store Interactions

No technology will ever be able to replace the effect that a personal touch can have on in-store interactions. Now, more than ever, retail store managers are recognizing the necessity of their associates while customers are shopping because there are some actions, like providing fit opinions or helping customers find items, that no computer could ever do the same as a person.

According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, the career outlook for retail sales associates is relatively good. The occupation is expected to experience 2% growth over the next ten years. While this is slower than average growth, it does not indicate that the career of sales associate is going anywhere soon.

Featured image: CC By SA 2.0  Roberto Faccenda via Flickr